Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Project (ARCHITECTURE)

Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Project (ARCHITECTURE)'s image
Created: 2015-09-27 11:57
Institution: Department of Archaeology and Anthropology
Description: Nomadic lifestyle requires that dwellings and structures be mobile. The traditional dwelling, or yurt, of the Kalmyks is called ger, which is also widely used among various nomadic peoples in Central and Inner Asia. Easy to assemble and transport, durable as well as lightweight, the ger consists of four main parts, namely term (wall), uudn (door), unin (roof poles), and kharach (roof ring or crown), all of which are made of wood. The wall is an expandable latticework construction consisting of several sections arranged in a circular shape and tied together with a rope. The latticework is made of rods of equal length organized in a crisscross pattern. The size of the yurt depends on the length of the wall and the number of roof poles. By adding or reducing the wall sections and roof poles, one can change the size of the yurt. The roof ring of the Kalmyk yurt is supported by roof poles only, which contrasts with the Mongolian yurt which has additional columns to support the roof ring from the floor. Because of its structural peculiarity, the Kalmyk yurt has the roof of a conical shape rather than a rounded, convex one as in the case in the Mongolian yurt. The whole structure is covered with felt, which keeps the inside warm in winter and cool in summer.

The Kalmyks are Buddhists. In the beginning temples were also mobile and accommodated in yurts called khurla ger. Each monastic complex, called kure, consisted of a khurla ger and several other yurts put around it that housed the clergy. Over time, temples came to be housed in buildings made of stone or wood. In 1872, for example, in Kalmykia there were 6 stone temples and 151 wooden ones. The early stationery temples showed a characteristically Tibetan influence – square in shape, their walls widening towards the base of the building. The Kalmyk temples were later enriched with Russian architectural solutions, ideas, and materials. One such example is the Khosheutovskiy Temple, which was built in 1817-1818 by Kalmyk Prince Tundutov to commemorate the Russian victory over Napoleon and which was modelled on Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg.

Having been the main adobe for nomadic Kalmyks until the first half of the 20th century, today the yurt is no longer used as a dwelling but is relegated to museums and tourist camps. It was not only the yurt that suffered during the Soviet period. In the 1930s all Buddhist structures, including temples, monasteries, and stupas, were destroyed. The only building that survived the Great Purge is part of the Khosheutovskiy Temple situated in the village of Rechnoe in Astrakhan oblast. Since the 1990s, the Kalmyk government has actively supported the revival of Buddhism, and as a result today many settlements in Kalmykia have temples, prayer houses, and stupas. Designed by Soviet-educated Kalmyk architects, many modern temples and prayer houses are different from historical ones.
 

Media items

This collection contains 15 media items.

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Media items

Badma Amulakova, About the Felt Yurt

   27 views

In this video Badma talks about the felt yurts that the Kalmyks have stopped using since the 1940s.

Collection: Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Project (ARCHITECTURE)

Institution: Department of Archaeology and Anthropology

Created: Mon 2 Jan 2017


Badma Amulakova, Inside a Felt Yurt

   15 views

Badma talks about the interior of the Kalmyk yurt.

Collection: Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Project (ARCHITECTURE)

Institution: Department of Archaeology and Anthropology

Created: Mon 2 Jan 2017


Mergen Kavaldanov, The Bas-Relief of the Heroes from Jangar

   3 views

Mergen talks about the bas-reliefs that he made which depict heroes from the epos Jangar.

Collection: Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Project (ARCHITECTURE)

Institution: Department of Archaeology and Anthropology

Created: Tue 11 Sep 2018


Olga Arkhakova, About the Construction of Two Temples in Elista

   10 views

Olga talks about the construction of two temples in Elista, the Geden Sheddup Choikorling Temple (Arshan Temple) and the Golden Abode of the Buddha Shakyamuni (Central Temple).

Collection: Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Project (ARCHITECTURE)

Institution: Department of Archaeology and Anthropology

Created: Sat 9 Dec 2017


Sofya Olzeeva, Traditional Dwelling

   27 views

Sofya says that in the past the Kalmyks, including her parents and grandparents, lived in yurts.

Collection: Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Project (ARCHITECTURE)

Institution: Department of Archaeology and Anthropology

Created: Sun 27 Sep 2015


Vladimir Gilyandikov, Sakyusn Sume

   33 views

The video features a round-table discussion with Vladimir Gilyandikov, architect of two main Buddhist temples in Kalmykia, including the Sakyusn Sume and the Golden Abode of...

Collection: Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Project (ARCHITECTURE)

Institution: Department of Archaeology and Anthropology

Created: Thu 14 Apr 2016


Yuriy Sangadzhiev, About the Felt Yurt

   10 views

Yuriy is the director of the Museum of Nomadic Culture in Elista which is housed in a traditional yurt. He talks about the structure of the yurt.

Collection: Kalmyk Cultural Heritage Project (ARCHITECTURE)

Institution: Department of Archaeology and Anthropology

Created: Wed 10 Jan 2018